I have written about many things that I enjoy in the world of analog hobbies. Now perhaps it is time that I write something in the negative column. I detest competitive eating. I always have.
There are many frivolous pursuits in this world, and the realm of analog hobbies almost always involves some sort of consumer product that, if not the object of the hobby, is some sort of supply for the facilitation of it. For instance a stamp collection usually needs nice pages to put them in. Fountain pens need ink. Cameras may need film. In the cases of stationary and such, we use much nicer things than we need, surely a ball point or Ticonderoga pencil, with some notebook paper would do, but we indulge ourselves in the better pieces. That’s all well and good. However, I cannot abide competitive eating.
According to feedingamerica.org, 41 million in the United States alone face food insecurity. 13 million of them are children. However today I read this article, Competitive Eater Downs 501 Chicken Wings For Record-Breaking Win – TIME.
Molly Schuyler is the new champion of the eating world it seems. 501 chicken wings. It makes me sick. I suppose hobby shaming isn’t a thing yet, so here you have it.
Now, I have my excesses. I collect things. I could always do more charity. I buy things I don’t need. I have written about the need to be wary of consumerism, which is a warning to myself as much as anyone. I find competitive eating to be the very worst though. 13 million kids who are not sure where their next meal comes from, and we have people celebrating this.
I grew up in Chattanooga Tennessee. I believe that it is the home of the Krystal burger. I do love Krystal and they are fairly common where I come from. I remember that about the time I was starting to drive, around 2003, Krystal put itself through a revitalization. They remodeled or cleaned up their stores, made fresh new commercials and continued to sell the same great product. They also had Krystal eating competitions. I remember well that I was confused as to why they would do that. If they could sponsor some ninety pound person to eat several hundred Krystals, why were they not hosting free burgers for the homeless, or ensuring that some of the 5.4 million seniors in food insecurity, had a hot meal.
I have always been troubled by seeing hungry people, be it in life or on television. I was never hungry. Not once in my childhood did I miss a meal. I was just always upset by witnessing hunger. Later, as a young adult I walked the streets of Baghdad and saw hungry people. So many hungry kids we didn’t know how to help them all. We also had to transport humanitarian aid packages to refugee camps due to the “resettlement” as they called it when people reclaimed their homes with the downfall of Saddam. We transported and delivered the goods to make sure they got to where they were going safely. I have pictures of the kids who cheered our arrival knowing we brought food, some school supplies, and probably sweets in our pockets. I would post them, but I’m still not certain that is a good idea, for their sakes. I see those kids every time I put food on the table for my kids. It makes me mindful to teach them the ideas of charity and gratitude, to be sure not to waste.
I see those kids when I look at these people too.
I did not come here to chew the fat on this subject, I came here to say exactly what it is. These competitive eaters and the institutions which facilitate them are morally bankrupt, reprehensible, deserving nothing less than the complete disdain of everyone with any kind of human decency. In the case of Schuyler’s latest “achievement,” the culpable party is the entire city of Philadelphia. They put on the Wing Bowl every year, whether the eagles go to the Super Bowl or not. I suppose they are trying to tell us that Philadelphia is a utopia where there are no poor or hungry people? I’m wagering that this is not the case.
A couple of points. Firstly, this is not to include people who finish some larger than average meal and the restaurant gives you a T-shirt or takes your picture. Some of the accomplishments above are like that, but we are not talking five pound pizzas. That is a waste. If your finish the big bob burger or whatever, good for you. You can still take that home. You will probably never be in possession of 501 chicken wings, that when consumed in a single setting for a contest, are an immense waste. Secondly, ignorance is not an excuse. You do not have to be able to quote hunger statistics in this country or any other to be able to tell that competitive eating is for human trash. You do not have to know how many hungry children there are to know that there are too many for this kind of vile spectacle to continue. Other writers have called for competitive eating to be banned, but in many cases, such as this USA Today article, the ban call comes from the dangers posed to the competitors. I do not care one jot about these competitors. I know, it is a poor humanist who says that, I am working on it. Really though, I do not. I do not even agree with a ban. We are America, not the USSR, and we cannot just ban things we do not like, or that or so wasteful that it could be a crime in some places. However, I do say that what we can do is ensure that we spread the word about how many hungry people there are, proper food charities, and the fact that this human garbage…disposal is not an athlete, and not a champion. Oh yeas a champion eater to be sure. Also a champion at putting a finger in the face of every kid who goes to school mostly because they are served a hot meal there, at laughing at every hungry person in the world, a champion at stepping over the poor to receive this year’s “Trump Greatness Award.” This is America for you, and this is why the other countries hate us. You do not have to respect these people. I am not calling for harm, but we can stop supporting the businesses that put on competitions where they can get 10,000$ for overeating during an obesity and eating disorder crisis, nestled just nicely on top of the poverty I have already mentioned. Here’s looking at you Nathan’s hotdogs. We can put these people on every social media website where readers will care. We can call them out for the scumbag gluttons they truly are.
Some people will not like this. I’m ok with that. It is time to pick a side. Please, do not like this, and then go try your hand at pie eating or something. For those who haves the depth to hate this, here is Feeding America. Their Charity Navigator results are very good, so I put my trust in them.
In closing, this is an analog hobby that I will not support. It is one that I will cheer the end of. In anticipation of someone asking, “but what if they donate to Feeding America with their eating winnings?” Firstly, prove it. Secondly, food is still a resource which must be grown, raised, and prepared, and which can be made scarce. Giving currency to the food charity does not cancel out criminal amounts of food waste created by competitive eating.
These quilts are not made of fabric. They are made of whiskey, love, horror movies, and Halloween spirit.
First of all, it is not weird for one dude to make and send another dude a quilt. It is not. If you believe it is, you need a friend like Carl.
Two weeks ago, I accomplished my goal of making a Halloween quilt for my family and I. It is an absolutely insane design using so called crazy quilting. I was curious if I would be able to make it start to finish by October first. I wanted it to be something that my family and I could use for watching Halloween movies, start a real tradition around something made with my own hands. I had some of the fabric already, and then I made my way into the Joann fabric sale…and the crazy quilt started as this…
It took me roughly 38 hours to make it…except I was making a second one in secret. See I got this buddy Carl, and by buddy, I mean best friend a guy could have. We used to spend October together, and now I am in Texas and he’s back in amazing New England. So I decided to make one for my buddy. Now you need to understand that I was having motivation, the kind that comes from making something awesome for someone you love and giving them something real, fight against time, the realist thing of all and one of the things you can do nothing with except make yourself more efficient. Luckily the crazy quilt lends itself to having extra pieces for making another one, for reasons I will show another time.
This quilt has been quite a trip. I bought a ton of fabric at Joann, I was sent some from my mother’s and grandmother’s stashes, and some was left over from other quilts. Those leftovers were pretty minimal in some cases, they were bought for other quilts and were used, but they are Joann staples. Unfortunately I could not find any in my stores…so I called some friends all the way back in New England. Enter The Ross. The Ross came through in all the ways asking nothing but a small amount of fabric. The Ross was able to get fabric bought and shipped to me on a wednesday and get it all the way to Texas by Friday afternoon in time for me to start sewing that night.
I finished my quilt on September 30th with a little time to spare. I had been working on Carl’s a little in the background, doing stuff here and there, attaching strips made from the ends of strips for the first quilt. September 30th after finishing mine, I turned around and started Carl’s. Seven hours later I was finishe with the top, another two hours and the bottom was made and everything was pinned. Last weekend I set to quilting it and it only took an additional seven hours. I was only hoping to get it done in time to have him get it in October, but as I was quilting, I realized that maybe, just maybe I could get it to him on a Friday the 13th, in October. Carl recieved his quilt today, exclaiming joy and surprise while describing me as a “crazy bastard.” Praise from Caesar. He showed me with this photo.
Fifty-six hours of my life, time the unreplenishable currency, and I declare that it was well spent. I love making things, especially to give away. Hours of life stitched into reality. Happy Halloween everyone, thought about making something real lately?
When I was a kid, my dad worked as essentially a large scale repo man. He had one of those awesome Polaroid cameras for documenting the stuff to be repossessed. We, the kids, were not supposed to grab it and take pictures. With that said, Mr. B (for your privacy) if you are reading this, I apologize, I know that film cost money, but we couldn’t help it. I admit it. I also do not think we opened any new packs, if it helps, but thank you for making sure we could find your Polaroid. I’m sure you noticed a lot more than you let on.
My first camera was an analog camera, a great 110 that was Ninja Turtles themed! In fact, film was how I found out there was no Santa Clause. I was clicking away as we cleaned out a home for my disabled great aunt, with some film I had gotten for Christmas. My mom told me to stop, I said it was my film, she said she bought that film. Poof, delusion nailed out. In all honesty, I kind of figured, but I had a kid sister to act for, and it was still fun.
Seventeen years of Digital cameras later (minus me taking 35MM film on my trip to Germany) and the analog/instant photo is making a come back!
How many of you know someone with an instant camera? I bet most of you (self depracating joke would be to say both of you) know at least one person who has an instant camera, and it is probably some kind of Fuji Instax. This is my little red beast!
I have had it for a couple of years now, and it is showing its time in service. It has been dropped by me, and dropped and thrown by a toddler several times. It may be running out of time, and there are more advanced models out there, but for the price (between 60-70$) you cant beat this thing. Point, Click, Bam! Classic instant photos with that good old vintage look.
In fact, that is what I bought mine. I bought it for the point and click, capture a memory, not many second chances (and at around 1$ a shot retail be careful with the second chances) stick it in a journal and move on. Wow… today is that day where everything comes full circle. That was part of how I started this blog, I was putting our families journal online. My plans have changed some, I was learning as I went, but that was the idea take photos of our family and glue them in. Here’s a look back at the Savage past, the infant stages.
We have evolved since then. I do still stick the pictures into my journal, and wouldn’t ya know it, Midori and The Travelers Notebook have accessories for doing just that. I also have a few extras because I just enjoy them.
I have also gotten another camera, which is far less point and click, The Lomo Instant. Based off of a camera from the former Soviet Union, Lomography has made taking vintage and ruddy photos into an art form.
This one does have some lenses, and yes there is the ever nifty double exposure mode, but what it really has is a company with soul! Lomography Is a bit hipster up front, but you are going to get some of that when you bring back photos that cost money the moment you hear the click. They have a shop, you can join and share your photos with the comunity, which I will do when their platform gets a little more user friendly. Even better, they have the Ten Golden Rules. I have been trying to abide by the one that says take your camera everywhere, but that is harder than it seems when it is bulkier than a cell phone. However, we know what my rules are, and one of them is to have a bag. Now I have one to carry everywhere, and the camera too! Do not let those rules get you bogged down, use them for inspiration really. They will help you figure out how you want to embrace this resurrected tech.
I went through some experimanetal phases. I read about a man who took a Polaroid a day (yes it was most likely the actual Polaroid stuff, not just people using the term today) and they are all an album online. It was a really moving series, which I want to recreate myself. I started trying it out, and the result was the life in instant photo series posts you see on here. They did not work, but my desire to complete a Jamie Livingston type experiment lives on! I have a pretty good stock pile, I just have to figure out how to put them up. I will get back to formatting later. Anyhow, a word on the Lomo Instant. That thing is in no way user friendly. If you buy it, it will come with some little printed photo cards with printed suggestions, use them. If you do not you will end up with a lot of blacked out or whited out photos. You can learn all the ins and outs of this camera, but those cards help you not to waste film.
I took my camera to a Red Sox vs. Rangers game and when people realized what I was doing, they started offering to pay for a photo of them and their family that they could hold. They are great for more than just your journal, you can give them away, you can hand them out, you can start a conversation about something tangible in your hand that is imperfect. I went through my computer the about a month back. My hard drive was getting full. when my first son was born I bought a decent digital camera, DSLR, and went banana sand which taking photos for the next four years. I ended up deleting 30,000 photos. That number is not exaggerated, it is in fact rounded down. Let that sink in, 30,000 photos deleted. There are around 17,000 more. That is a decades worth of photos total, but man what was I ever going to do with all of them? They were not even separate photos, I would point the camera at my kid and hold the shutter down. It was like a stop motion film, but less fun. If nothing else, the cost of analog photography slows you down a little.
Don’t get me wrong, I have so many memories of my family preserved that did not eat up money or physical space, but at the same time, I almost stopped enjoying taking them. You have seen me say, do not let recording life stop you from living it.
I do not know about you, but there is something great about a simple photo, with little to no jargon involved, that looks like it came from the 80s, not taken on a smart phone, on real film. The ironic part is that you will still want to show it off, and that will require some very digital stuff. A scanner, or a smart phone with a scanner app. That is how I do it.
If you go down this self developing road, start with the Fuji Instax. I still have days where I want to throw the Lomo. Here are my tips:
- Order your film on Amazon, it comes out a little cheaper if you buy it in the three pack bundle.
- Never buy the Polaroid film (in mini 8) it is the same as the Fuji, and costs 16$ for ten shots, where as Fuji is 20$ (retail) for twenty shots.
- Get something to stick your photos in, they dislike pockets, a little tin or something will work.
- If you use the travelers notebook, embrace the analog photos
- Don’t wait, life isn’t getting longer.
This is my stash of film for while we are in New York, and there are already two packs in my kit bag! This is the wonder of Amazon, it makes the cost hurt sooo much less.
What is your favorite analog photo?
These stamps here are perfect examples of Soviet stamps being meant to be sent and seen outside of the Union. These are architecture projects in Moscow, that to me smack of modernness, and more importantly exhibiting what they had done for the olympics three years prior.
The entire series was issued on December 15, 1983.
This are the first ones I have catalogued and written about that are printed in relief. The basic idea is that the image is etched out of the plate and when the object is printed, the ink fills in the spaces that were etched out. It makes for incredibly beautiful and detailed stamps. They are some of my favorites, and I often have to fight the urge to touch them to feel the printing.
At the end there will be more photos.
This is the Natalya Sats Musical theater, formally known as Moscow State Academic Children’s Music Theater Named After Natalya Sats. All infomation cited as (Wikipedia) can be found here.
Details: Issued 12-15-1983, face value 3 Kopeks-it would have sent a postcard.
Natalya Sats was the director of this institution in 1921, long before this building was opened in 1979. Sats and her institution were part of Lenin’s wife wanting children’s art education to resume. Sats had a break in her directorship due to the purges, but resumed until she died in 1993 at the age of 90. (Wikipedia). It is very interesting, and if you have time you should read more about this fascinating institution for children.
The Central House of Tourists
Value: 4 Kopeks, postcard or domestic letter
The hotel is now called the Astras, and it is still in use today. Thirty-three floors, 537 rooms, opened 1980. What I find interesting is the tiny silohouettes of people in the windows, all the way down the hotel.
Russian Soviet Federation House
Value: 6 Kopeks, post card, domestic letter, small registered item. I believe registered to cover international as well.
As of 1981 this was the seat of Soviet government, and it is still in use for that purpose today. It is listed as the Russian White House, it reads to me more similarly to 10 Downing Street in London, home of the government and Prime Minister. It replaced the Grand Kremlin Palace, which to me is funny. It would seem that Bolsheviks would have wanted something clean and modern, unassociated with the czars and aristocracy, so this coming so very close to the end of the Soviet Union surprises me. Of course, they did not know it was going to end in a decade.
I love this one. Just look at it. It makes stamps today look cheap by comparison.
Value: 20 Kopeks, Postcard, but in five kopeks it will be more than a post card ever was, domestic letter, registered item.
Opened in 1979, this is actually a hotel complex consisting of four separate hotels. It was built, in keeping with the theme, because there were not enough hotel rooms for the coming olympics in 1980, that were to be hosted in 1980. These are still in operation today, ranging from 3-4 stars. Interestingly this was the world’s largest hotel until 1993, when another was opened in Moscow. It was beaten by the expansion of the MGM Grand in Vegas (Wikipedia).
1980 Olympic Press Center
This one, I admit, gave me some issues. I had a hard time with the fact that the words in this case are printed in cursive. I turned to soviet-postcards.com, and it just came back as “News Publishing Agency.” I looked at buildings added to Moscow in the time frame, and found the part about it being for the olympics.
Value: 45 Kopeks, this would only have been used to send a registered item, and I speculate internationally. Stamps were meant to show off to the world, and historaical rates say that no domestic letter needed more than 40 Kopeks. Registered was between 6 Kopeks and 1 Ruble (100 kopeks to the ruble). I figure this to be where all the press conferences, maybe the ceremonies and such were held for the olympics in 1980. Now it is simply noted as being used as office space. That is a step up from all the abandoned spaces created for the Olympics.
Time always moves strangely to me. You have an idea, you start it, you work on it, but it is a long term project and you allow it to sit and flow over time.
The last time I wrote about this was almost a year ago! I promise I have since scratched some books off of the list, and there is more of this to come.
The premise here, again, is that like Denzel Washington’s character from The Equalizer, I am working my way through the list “100 books everyone has to read before they die.” The list can be found here.
Today we examine Pride and Prejudice, and The Great Gatsby. I am most likely going to make myself very unpopular here, but you do not have to read these. Keep in mind all things said here are just my opinion, and I am heavily influenced by what I would consider the bigger historical issues.
That is right, I said it. You do not have to read these, despite what the list says.
Let us tackle the Austen first. This is an amazing story, but as a text, it is difficult to chew through. I read the book. I have listened to the book. I have watched several versions of the movie, and an episode of ‘Wishbone.” This book’s relevance is rapidly becoming lost, in my opinion. Jane Austen wrote this during the Napoleonic Wars, and it is an excellent social commentary on the time. However, we have since moved on. We have moved far on. I am not trying to just kill off classics that are outside of their time, but unless you are studying 19th Century English Literature, or maybe on a looser level just English history, then these social issues will not fall into place I feel. As I said, I love the story, but I love it when it is acted out. When I read it, I would have to take breaks, and by breaks I mean read other books, or the time it takes to move to other states. People are going to hate me, and I will now watch my back for the members of the Austen Society, but I am scratching this off and replacing it with The Silence of the Lambs, by Thomas Harris. Maybe the novel would have stayed on the list had it gone into the larger issues of the Napoleonic Wars, but again this is colored by my views on history, and how it effects the modern world.
When I say that I enjoy the story, just not the book, I cannot say that in any way for The Great Gatsby. How this is considered “the great American novel,” I will never know. The novel flopped hard, and Fitzgerald went to his grave feeling forgotten. Later it was given to the soldiers who were going to WWII, and they connected with it, revitalizing the book. (Wikipedia, The Great Gatsby)
There is the point. The soldiers that connected with this novel, were the guys who had fathers and such who had been in WWI. They understood the social issues this book represents, and the times in which it was set. Just as soon as WWII was over, the depression era was dead and gone in America, we were in the post-war boom. It was a new era. The only thing stopping this book from being just as irrelevant as it began, was the brief moment it enjoyed. Time does not make bad things better, sucked then, sucks now. If this book was not as popular as it is, The Plaza would not have made a Fitzgerald Suite. Let this die, I beg of you old sport, let this fade back to where it belongs.
In exchange I offer you something else. Kids today need to understand how we got where we are, how the 20th Century culminated. They need to understand the events that led us to the 1990s, the 2000s, the last election. For your consideration, I give you, The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis. It is not a novel, but it is relevant, entertaining, and coherent, all things that Gatsby is not.
Life is too short to read bad books.
Details of the 1980 Summer Olympics taken from here. Do not forget to cite, like I just did, albeit in a loose format.
The Olympic Games of 1980, would be the smallest since 1956, due to a boycott. The boycott in 1980 was over the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan. However, these games would still be noteable as the first and only to be held in Eastern Europe to date, and they were the first to be held in a Socialist nation until, remaining the only one until 2008, Beijing China. The full details can be found above, in the link. The 1956 games were also boycotted over the Soviet Union. It is also worth noting that only Moscow, and Los Angeles competed to host in 1980.
It needs to be understood that the Soviet Union did not produce postage stamps solely for their own citizens usage and collecting. They intended these stamps to be seen abroad. They were using their stamps to show off the symbols, ideas, progress, and accomplishments of the Soviet Union, so it should be, I argue, a neccissity to look at Soviet Stamps as best as one can like a Soviet, but also like an outsider viewing a piece of propaganda.
The series consists of four stamps. The one seen above is the main collectors piece. It is a miniaturized view of Moscow, or the main center anyhow. The details:
- Issued: December 28, 1976 (this was in advance of the games) all stamps
- Value: 60 Kopeks + 30 Kopeks, this would have almost been registered mail, and I believe, international mail ( just the one pictured.)
- The bottom reads, ” Moscow- Organizers of the 22nd Olympiad”. (Roughly)
These stamps do have two face values, and that is because they are charity stamps. The first value, here the 60 kopeks, is postage, and the second, 30 kopeks, goes to charity. We can’t know what the charity was, but I will check other stamps and if it only occurs with themes, we may make educated guesses. I would like to thank http://soviet-postcards.com for the information about charity stamps.
I love this piece. It is a collector’s plate, with a miniature of Moscow featured. The stamp itself, if used, features mainly the cathedral ( lower left) and the Kremlin Senate Palace ( upper right.). The actual Kremlin is almost entirely on the collector’s portion, not the postage portion. I find this piece, especially considering that it would have been a waster of money to mail something domestic with this, to be fascinating. The stamp was highlighting Moscow, but not the Kremlin, if it was used.
The other three are nice, but not nearly as fascinating for me. They are various Olympic symbols, with banners which read, “Games 22nd Olympiad, Moscow, 80.” Their values can be seen in photo. I do like that, as each host city has its own icon for the games, the Moscow Icon was similar to the Soviet Star being placed upon a building.
I bought this kite from Bridge Kite Shop, and this kit can be purchased here. When I had found the website for Bridge, this was what caught my eye. Not just the prospect of building a kite myself, but the idea that the units or cells could keep going. Four cells make a kite, then make each kite into a cell and assemble four of those, well you get the idea. This kit comes with everything you need except for scissors and glue, which both the website and instructions tell you.
I will not say much about the design, as I cannot say anything the website does not already, but it is named after the designer of this kit, Greg Kono, and Alexander Graham Bell, who apparently made something very similar to this.
The kit itself could not be simpler with very good instructions. My biggest tips is to dip both ends of a spar (stick) in glue at once, as you will not be able to move the whole frame to the glue so get both ends ready for connectors at once. Also, I used a brush to put the glue on the paper folds that go around the spar. I also recommend decorating the sails ahead of time, the kit papers are clearly marked so you will know where you will be placing the designs or coloring. I went with rubber stamps of the the Death’s Head Moth, but I was attracted to the idea of Bridge’s kites because I can color and decorate them with my kids.
I could have let each stage dry before continuing on, but it was not necessary. I did let the fram dry for a day before applying the sails, and I let that dry for another day before attempting flight. My kids and I took it our first in eleven MPH winds, and that achieved lift very well. It was the lack of sustained wind that stopped us from getting a sustained flight. We had a similar issue with thirteen to fifteen MPH winds, plenty of lift, just no sustaining winds, so it is not the kites fault, nature was just teasing us.
We have it on a quick reel, which is not what it came with. The reel is not a problem, but I feel that clipping the quick connector rather than using two overhand knots as recommended, may have destabilized some of the flights, and that was very much my fault. The quick connect, goes on one spar, while the over hand knots would secure to the entire top connector, making a solid tie point, rather than encouraging it to spin on an axis.
Another tip, do not worry about excess glue, this will help create a very complete and secure bond between spar and connector. I tried to be cautious about excess, which I later realized was a mistake. I had to reglue several connections where I had left room for the seal to break, after the first flight. The second flight saw no broken connections despite higher flights and falls, because the seal was complete.
My oldest also got the hang of sustained flight with his Spongebob diamond he recieved for his birthday. If it had not have been for heat, we would have stayed out flying, ignoring the TV and electronics. Safe flying and make sure you get something from Bridge Kite Shop.
On 12 April, 1961, Yuri Gagarin did something that was beyond the scope of words to describe the magnitude properly. He had become the first human being to fly in space in his Vostok spacecraft.
This stamp, which came out after Gagarin had died, was made to commemorate that monumentous occasion.
This is a beautiful piece, in my opinion. The details:
The top text is the title. The text under the portrait is his name, Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin. The text on the medal translates as Pilot Cosmonaut, and I believe the medal to be Hero of the Soviet Union. Gagarin is seen here wearing the rank of “Polkovnik” or what the United States calls a colonel. The Piece has a face value of 50 Kopeks. These are numbered, mine being 110,464 of 450,000.
Gagarin would die in 1968 piloting as MiG-15. As I understand it his two daughters are alive and doing very well, both very prominent in Moscow. With the Cold War over, we can stop and give Gagarin’s contribution to humanity the respect it deserves. He was the first representative of this species in space. This year marks the 56th anniversary of Colonel Gagarin’s 1 hour 48 minute trip. Gagarin also oribited the earth during this trip.
Credits: World Book Encyclopedia: 2013, Volumes G and A, G-P.5 A-P.829, entries “Gagarin, Yuri” and “Astronaut”